Grammar

KALANGA ORTHOGRAPHY Compiled by Tshidzanani T. Malaba

The Kalanga Alphabet {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, n’, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, y, z}    
   Vowels     { a, e, i, o, u }   a   pala (scrap), -tala (draw line), bhika (cook)   
e    pela (be finished),  leba (say it), zose (all)    i    pila (worship) dila (pour), mbizi (zebra)    
o  pola (cool down), tola (take),     
u    pula (thrush), tula (put load down), nhu (person)        Long vowels   aa    etjiyaa, woyaa  ee   yewee, ee  ii  tii,  oo   yetjoo,  uu  mhuu, duu            Single Consonants.   
b  banga (wound), behha (wood curving), busi (smoke)      c  cansi (grass mat) , nzece ( ) , nca (raca)         d  dula (silo), ludo (love), dama (word)      f     fala (absentminded), fodlo (tobacco), fa (die)      g    gala (sit), -go (wasp), -gudo (baboon)      h   hanga (guinea fowl ) hama (relative), hali (pot),  helo (there you are),    
h   hama (open your mouth), hema (hate), homu (amarula nuts) haba (red), mahewu (sweet beer), he (chief), This  italicised  separation  /h and h/ is meant for appreciation that the letter /h/ is currently  used for two different phonetics. Separation of these phonetics using other letters of the alphabet or consonant combinations must be considered in future with a transition period.     
j  jita (climb-down), jatja (temporal shelter), njiba (dove)  
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    k  kanyi (home), nkaka (milk), kupa (teak),   
l  ludo (love), - linga (look), -loba (hit), lala(sleep)   
m   mma (stand), -mona (twist), muka (wakeup)   
n  naka (beauty), nonoka (slow), nhuwa (smell)    
n’ n’ombe (cattle), n’anga (traditional healer), n’an’aba (a facial expression  of one who is about to cry)                        p  pisa(burn), pala (scratch), paladza/palaja (destroy)     r   tjirara (cone shaped havest storage), bhaphiro (wing), bhururuka (fly)   s   siya (leave behind), senga(carry), sunga(tie), soba (  )   
t  tola (take) tate (father), tebula (pour out), tuma(send)      v  vanga ( mix), vula (water), vima(hunt)      w   wana (find), -wayenda (he went), wila (fall in)   
y  yangu (mine), yemula (admire), yedu (ours)   
z  zebe (ear), zina (name), zomola (nip forcefully)   
         Consonant combinations   
bgw   bgwe (stone), nzimabgwe (home of stones), bgwila (licking), bgwata (hide)   
bh  bhabha(carry with your back), bhoma(smear), mabhubhu (immature grain   at harvest)    bv   bvuma (agree), bvubika (immense), bva (leave), bvumbu (color grey)   ch  chinsa (first harvest ceremony), tjichenene, zwichaphe(traditional attire)   dl  dla(eat), dlisa (feed/overeat), pedlo(near) fodlo( tobacco)     dz  dzeta(dodge), dzangu(mine), dzu(fish eagle), dzipa(strangle)     dzw  dzwala(sow),       gw  gwendo (journey), gwala(to be sick),   
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hh  hhala (hunger) nhuhha (youngman), hhi`ho (eye) hhoba (noise)        hl  hla (fear), hlisa (fearful)    
hw hwa (ants), mahwa (afternoon), mahwe good (curdled milk) hwita (swift) Note that Talawunda, Lilima – Ikalanga uses /sh – mashwa/     
kh  #khama (strangle), khiba(apron), #borrowed from Ndebele/Zulu    
kw  -kwala(write), kweba (pull),       khw  khwa( pound), bukhwilo ( peanuts meal), khwiba (steal)    
mb   mbiganyi(comforter), mbaba(winter), mbeba (rat), mbuyu (baobab),   mbonje(scar)   mbgw  mbgwa (dog), mbgwimbgwi, (gums) mbgweti (type of a tree), gambgwa (shell)   mbh  mbhayilo (reward), mbhibhanyi(????)   
mbv   mbvana (middle aged woman), mbvumbi (continuous light rain)     mf  mfi (the late), mfidzi (accomplisher)   
mh   mhulu (calf), mheni (lightining), mhungubgwe (jackal),    mhahha (luck), mhele (hyena)   
mm mme (mother), mma! (expression),    
mp   mpani (mopane tree), mpini (tool handle)   
mpf  mpfudze (manure), mpfula (amarula tree)   
mph  mpho (done free of charge)    mv   mvitjo (swing saw), mvumbinlidzo cobra snake), mvo (first milk)   
mw  mwa (suck), fumwa (wealth), mweni (owner), mwina (burrow)    nd   nda (farm), ndebo (news), ndilo (plate), ndiyi (teacher) Ndebele?       ndh  ndhale (beer for sale) ndhazula (a traditional dance) ndhiyi (teacher) Ndhelele?   
ndl  Ndlana (September), Ndligwa ndhlana?   
ng   Kalanga (language), ngula (bath), ngina (come in), ngeno (here)  
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ngh  nghanhu (boundary), nghopi ( a bird?) nghalibhuna (chairman)   
ngw  ngwena (crocodile), ngwa (war), ngwenu (now), ngwe (leopard)   
nh  nhanga (play field), nhete (quiver) nhiba (garden), nhongo (male goat),     nhunji (waist)   
n’h  n’hanje (grass), n’hingi (worker), n’holo (head), n’hiya (can this be used for n’diyi?)     nhh  nhhambi (grapes), nhhuhha (young man), nhhi (foreigner/new come)      nj  njiba (dove), njele (intelligence), maxonja (mopane worm), njimbo(songs)   
njh  njhela(under the barn), manjhilila(flying squirrel)      nk  nkabo (calabash), nkulu (elder bro/sister) nkoba (door)   
nkhw  nkhwe (crack), nkhwa (slave)   
nkw  nkwala (spoor), nkwele (type of a tree), nkwinya (friend)    nl  nlisi (shepherd), nlume (man), nlapwa (patient), nlomo (mouth)    nlenje (culture)   
nn  kunna (four)   
nt    ntunhu (place), ntundo (urine), ntolo( long ago)      ntj  ntjili (rope), ntjenje (termite), mantja (truth)   
nts  whentserele (a bird ), ntsara (drag), ntsi!( stop/ to be still)   
ntsh  ntshibha   
ntshw  ntshwayilo (grass broom),      ns  nsetje (sand), nsi (day/day of rest/ sabbath)               nsw    nswanja (fruit tree),    
nwh  nwhilili , nwhiti     ny  nyama (meat), nyoka (snake), nyola (tatoo)  nyunyi (birds), nyolo(wet), nyepa (lies)    
nyw  nyunywana (small bird)   
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nz  nzano (play), nzi (home), nzembe (dove like bird)   nzw  nzwali (parent), nzwigwa (fruit tree mviyo)   
ph  phoko (he goat not castrated), phapha (chopping wood)   
pf   pfa (spit), pfula (kick & amarula fruit) pfumo/thumo (spear)   
pw  phwe (sweet reed), phwaya (pounding), phwanya (crush) There is a strong suggestion to move away /pw /to either /phw/ or /pkhw/   
rw – Babirwa, KuBurwa  (Southern tribe /cardinal point) [No other words use /rw/]   
sw  swimbo (knobkerrie), swina (squeeze out), swanja (fruit)   
tj  tjaba(nation), tjedu (ours), tjidza (help), tjulu (anthill), lutjayo (marking or branding)   
th  thama (do), thikili (bundle of thatching grass), thaka (peer)       ts   tsatula (squeeze forcefully and suddenly), tsako            tsh   tshambani (step on), tsheduka (move a bit), tshibama (to give birth)   tshw   dzwatshwatshwa (beetle like insect), tshwenya (bypass), tshwa (new)   
wh  wha (hear), whalo (letters), whi (voice), whali (a type of a bird),  whentserele (a bird), whilila (listen),  This is not consistent with linguists recommendations neither is it in conformity with iKalanga and Nambya.    
zw   zwedu (ours), zwala (give birth), zwinhu (things)